In this post, I will give an introduction of Support Vector Machine classifier. This post will be a part of the series in which I will explain Support Vector Machine (SVM) including all the necessary minute details and mathematics behind it. It will be easy, believe me! Without any delay let’s begin —

Suppose we’re given these two samples of blue stars and purple hearts (just for schematic representation and no real data are used here), and our job is to find out a line that separates them best. What do we mean by best here ?

Let’s see the…

‘Black Hole’, two words that fascinate all of us, a ‘place’ of no escape for anything that passes beyond the event horizon, a complex system like that has been created artificially in laboratory and, researchers observed stationary hawking radiation from it. This fascinating report has been published recently in the prestigious journal Nature. Let’s at least try to touch the surface of this extremely complicated laboratory model of black hole and some theories behind it.

** Hawking Radiation:** The concept behind Hawking Radiation relies on uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics. Large fluctuations in energy can happen for a brief period of…

In machine learning sometimes we are dealt with a very good hand like MNIST fashion data or CIFAR-10 data where the examples of each class in the data-set are well balanced. What happens if in a classification problem the distribution of examples across the known classes are biased or skewed ? Such problems with severe to slight bias in the data-set are common and today we will discuss an approach to handle such class imbalanced data. Let’s consider an extreme case of imbalanced data-set of mails and we build a classifier to detect spam mails. Since spam mails are relatively…

One of the most important and commonly occurring multiple qubit gates is Hadamard gate. Before we have seen matrix representation of Hadamard gate and on a separate post studied several simple quantum circuits involving Hadamard gate. In this post we will explore *uniform superposition,* which is the basis of *Grover’s Algorithm*. This post will be short and involve some mathematics but if you have gone through the previous posts and have a grasp on graduate level math, this won’t be difficult at all. Let’s get started!

We have discussed this circuit before and here let’s review it once again. We…

The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) is maintained by National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Response to Terrorism (START). The database file used in this notebook can be downloaded from Kaggle page (available in .csv format). It consists of the data of worldwide terrorist attacks from *1970 to 2017* including more than 180,000 attacks and 100 features. The GTD defines *terrorism* as —

“The threatened or actual use of illegal force and violence by a non-state actor to attain a political, economic, religious, or social goal through fear, coercion, or intimidation.”

Previously I have described about building simple quantum circuits and thinking quantum gates as matrix operators. Also using superposition of qubits, we learnt to how to create entangled states. If you suddenly find yourself here in this post without reading the previous two posts, it may be little difficult to follow along. Before diving deep into an important concept known as ‘Phase Kickback’, in this post I will describe various quantum circuits and how to build intuition to get started with multiple qubits and quantum gates. Since Bloch Sphere is often used to visualize quantum states, we will also learn…

Recently, I came across the amazing paper presented in CVPR 2019 by Jon Barron about developing a robust and adaptive loss function for Machine Learning problems. This post is a review of that paper along with some necessary concepts and, it will also contain an implementation of the loss function on a simple regression problem.

Consider one of the most used errors in machine learning problems- Mean Squared Error (MSE). As you know it is of the form (y-x)². One of the key characteristics of the MSE is that its high sensitivity towards large errors compared to small ones. A…

Today we will peek into one of the most important and fascinating topics of Quantum Mechanics — **Entanglement**! In this post you can expect to learn

- What are Bell States?
- How to simply identify entangled states ?
- What is “Spooky Action at a Distance”?
- Creating superposition of qubits using Hadamard Gate.
- How to logically think and design entangled state using Quantum Gates?

Even though it is written as generally as possible, still anyone having understanding of bachelor level quantum mechanics will find it more intuitive. I have used IBM Quantum Experience which provides (for free) cloud based software to use…

After the quantum supremacy research paper published in nature by the Google scientists at the end of last year, one thing is for sure, and that is — we are now entering a completely new paradigm. IBM Quantum Experience, since their launch in 2016, have been providing cloud based software for general public to use their quantum computers anytime. We also have another relatively easy to understand open source framework, Qiskit, which helps us in working with the quantum computers at the level of circuits, pulses, and algorithms. We can take leverage of these free stuffs and, get started with…

Our intuition may suggest that deeper neural networks should be able to catch more complex features and thus they can be used for representing more complex functions compared to the shallower ones. The question that should arise is — if learning a better network is equivalent to stacking more and more layers? What are the problems and benefits of this approach? These questions and some very important other concepts were discussed in the Deep Residual Learning for Image Recognition paper by K. He et al. in 2017. This architecture is known as ResNet and many important must-know concepts related to…

PhD, Astrophysics. Using Deep Learning, Searching Dark Matter! https://www.linkedin.com/in/saptashwa